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Zenith El Primero

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Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 40mm White
Promoted
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
ゼニス クロノマスター スポーツ 03.3100.3600/69.M3100 SS
Php465,742
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 43mm Silver Roman numerals
Promoted
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Flyback
Php482,042
+ Php9,038 for shipping
Zenith El Primero 36'000 VpH Steel Blue
Zenith El Primero 36'000 VpH
Charles Vermot
Php358,125
+ Php3,551 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Rose gold 40mm Silver
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
18.0510.4021
Php752,363
+ Php8,968 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Mother of pearl No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
Edition boutique like NEW 06/2022 full set
Php812,552
+ Php12,038 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Lightweight Carbon 45mm Transparent No numerals
Zenith El Primero Lightweight
Chronograph Lightweight Limited Edition Ref.
Php649,319
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 38mm Silver No numerals
Zenith El Primero
A386 MK2
Php1,188,733
+ Php1,806 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Black No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/21.C822
Php553,137
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 45mm Black Roman numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Open Xxt 03.1260.4021/21.M1260 EL PRIMERO
Php341,201
+ Php6,879 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 37mm White No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Revival El Primero A384 (2022)
Php373,779
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 45mm Brown
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
XXT Open - 03.1260.4021/72.c551
Php269,659
+ Php7,099 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Black No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
Stainless Steel Black Dial on Steel Bracelet [COMPLETE SET]
Php473,004
+ Php13,758 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 46mm Black
Zenith El Primero
46MM 03.0526.4000 STAINLESS STEEL MEN'S WATCH
Php330,690
+ Php6,879 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
2022 Full Set
Php601,890
+ Php8,426 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/69.M3100
Php547,573
+ Php21,738 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Steel 38mm White
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
"Very Rare Zenith El Primero Tri-Color Mark III" Chronograph White Dial - A386
Php2,202,918
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 42mm Silver No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Open Chronomaster
Php295,251
+ Php12,051 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
41mm Ref. 03.3100.3600/69.M3100 von 2021
Php541,099
+ Php3,551 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 40mm Black
Zenith El Primero
Rainbow El Primero
Php276,870
+ Php12,038 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
41mm - 03.3100.3600.69.c823
Php489,789
+ Php8,200 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 40mm
Zenith El Primero
De Luca I
Php517,024
+ Php7,223 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
41
Php589,552
+ Php15,950 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Rose gold 40mm Silver Roman numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
17.0240.410
Php601,890
+ Php9,028 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Black No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
Black Dial
Php544,822
+ Php21,738 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Rose gold 42mm Blue
Zenith El Primero
Rose Gold Blue Dial Limited 50 Pcs. - 18.2045.400
Php914,873
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 42mm Transparent No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
03.2081.400/78.C813
Php451,915
+ Php12,051 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 45mm Silver
Zenith El Primero
03.2520.400/69.C713 - Discontinued
Php421,263
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 38mm Silver
Zenith El Primero
A386
Php1,161,648
+ Php12,038 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Rose gold Black
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
18KT Rose Gold NEW 2022 B&P
Php2,063,718
+ Php12,602 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 45mm Silver
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
03.2520.400/69.C713
Php378,348
+ Php5,448 for shipping

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Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Aluminum 42mm Grey No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Range Rover Chronomaster
Php240,154
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Black No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
41
Php589,552
+ Php15,950 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Winsor Annual Calendar Rose gold 42mm Silver No numerals
Zenith El Primero Winsor Annual Calendar
42mm Box & Papers
Php716,249
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Rose gold 42mm Green
Zenith El Primero
Green Dial Rose Gold Limited 50 Pcs. - 18.2044.400
Php914,873
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Rose gold 41mm Black
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
Automatic 41 Mm
Php1,861,889
+ Php12,051 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Titanium 42mm Transparent No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
2 - 95.3002.3600/69.C818 - LIMITED EDITION
Php565,717
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Steel Silver
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
03.2520.400
Php279,871
+ Php2,023 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Rose gold 41mm White
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
18.3100.3600/69.C920
Php908,036
+ Php12,602 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Steel 40mm White
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
Rainbow Chronograph
Php177,558
+ Php3,009 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 40mm Black
Zenith El Primero
 02.0480.405 Rainbow Flyback El Primero
Php213,415
+ Php12,856 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Titanium 45mm Black No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
1969 Rolling Stones Limited Edition
Php538,692
+ Php15,950 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 43mm Silver Roman numerals
Zenith El Primero
Chronomaster Flyback Chronograph B&P
Php517,626
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Tourbillon Rose gold 45mm White
Zenith El Primero Tourbillon
Rose Gold White Dial - 18.2280.4035/01.C713
Php1,907,992
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/69.M3100
Php560,374
+ Php12,051 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/69.M310 - WHITE DIAL
Php692,114
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Titanium 45mm Silver
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Titan Leder Carbon Optik Ref. 9512604021
Php324,419
+ Php14,144 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/69.C823
Php488,413
+ Php12,602 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Rose gold 41mm White No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
41mm unworn box papers VAT
Php1,865,800
+ Php11,978 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster 42mm Transparent
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
ゼニス ZENITH クロノマスター エル・プリメロ フルオープン51.2081.400/78.C810
Php441,400
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 42mm Silver No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Power Reserve
Php252,734
+ Php4,755 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Steel 38mm Black
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
01.0500.400
Php171,539
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Tourbillon Steel 45mm Black
Zenith El Primero Tourbillon
Black Dial - 03.2280.4035/21.C714
Php1,733,444
+ Php15,047 for shipping
Zenith Chronomaster Sport Steel 41mm Black No numerals
Zenith Chronomaster Sport
03.3100.3600/21.M3100
Php590,502
+ Php12,051 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel White
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Open 1969 Watch
Php370,913
+ Php4,046 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronograph Steel 36mm Silver
Promoted
Zenith El Primero Chronograph
01.0210.415
Php132,416
Excl. shipping
Private Seller
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Steel 42mm Blue No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Open
Php233,888
+ Php8,255 for shipping
Zenith El Primero 36'000 VpH Steel Silver
Zenith El Primero 36'000 VpH
Chronograph 2010 Box & Papers
Php283,242
+ Php5,959 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Original 1969 Steel 38mm Brown
Zenith El Primero Original 1969
ゼニス ZENITH クロノマスター ヘリテージ 14603.2150.4069/75.C806
Php282,839
Free shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Rose gold 40mm Silver
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
Open
Php628,975
+ Php3,009 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster Rose gold 42mm Silver No numerals
Zenith El Primero Chronomaster
1969
Php687,906
+ Php5,448 for shipping
Zenith El Primero Steel 38mm White
Zenith El Primero
A386 Revival Limited 49 Pcs. Stainless Steel - 03.P386.400/07.C840
Price on request
+ Php15,047 for shipping

Zenith El Primero: The First Movement of Its Kind

The Zenith El Primero was the first automatic chronograph caliber in the world. Oscillating at a high frequency, this movement can measure 1/10th of a second. Current top models can even time to 1/100th of a second and boast a double tourbillon.

By Chrono24

High Performance and Precision Since 1969

The Swiss luxury watch manufacturer Zenith is inseparable from their famous chronograph caliber, the El Primero, which means "the first" in Spanish. The movement was released in 1969 and is considered the first automatic chronograph movement ever produced. The El Primero earned the brand with the star logo its place in horological history and has since become Zenith's showpiece.

Thanks to an unusually high balance frequency of 36,000 vph (5 Hz), the movement can measure 1/10th of a second – a feat that remains a rarity in mechanical chronographs to this day. Despite its frequency, the caliber has a power reserve of 50 hours when fully wound. In comparison, the Valjoux 7750 from ETA only has a power reserve of around 44 hours.

Today, the El Primero powers various watches in the {model-189,Chronomaster}, Defy, and Pilot series. The El Primero 21, introduced in 2017 and found in some watches in the Defy line, increases the movement's already legendary precision by a factor of ten. It is fitted with two oscillation/escapement systems – one for the time display, which runs at 5 Hz, and another for the chronograph. The latter boasts an incredible frequency of 50 Hz, which allows timing to 1/100th of a second.

Other highlights include El Primero movements with a double tourbillon or fusee. The double tourbillon version relies on a tourbillon each for the time display and chronograph function, while the El Primero Fusee with a tourbillon uses a fusee and chain mechanism to modulate the force of the mainspring. Zenith's watchmaking brilliance extends to movements with so-called Gravity Control. Here, the balance and escapement are part of a gyroscopic regulating module that continuously realigns itself to counteract the effects of gravity.

Reasons to Buy a Watch With an El Primero Movement

  • High balance frequency enabling measurements to 1/10th of a second
  • El Primero 21 with two escapements, measures 1/100th of a second
  • 50-hour power reserve
  • Top models with a tourbillon or Gravity Control
  • World's first automatic chronograph caliber

Prices for Watches With El Primero Calibers

Model/Reference number Price (approx.) Material, Movement
Defy Double Tourbillon / 40.9000.9020/78.R582 106,000 USD Platinum, EP 9020
Defy Zero G / 18.9000.8812/79.M9000 93,500 USD Rose gold, EP 8812 S
Academy Christophe Colomb Equation of Time / 18.2220.8808/01.C631 68,500 USD Rose gold, EP 8808
Defy Fusee Tourbillon / 10.9000.4805/78.R916 61,000 USD Carbon, EP 4805
Chronomaster Tourbillon / 65.2050.4035/91.C714 50,000 USD White gold, EP 4035
Chronomaster / A386 19,000 USD Stainless steel, EP 400
Defy Extreme / 87.9100.9004/03.I001 18,500 USD Microblasted titanium and rose gold, EP 9004
Chronomaster Sport / 03.3100.3600/69.M3100 10,500 USD Stainless steel, EP 3600
Chronomaster Original / 03.3200.3600/69.C902 8,300 USD Stainless steel, EP 3600
Pilot Type 20 Chronograph / 03.2434.4069/20.I010 6,600 USD Stainless steel, EP 4069
Chronomaster Revival El Primero A384 / 03.A384.400/21.C815 6,400 USD Stainless steel, EP 400
Chronomaster El Primero TV / 01-0200-415 4,700 USD Stainless steel, EP 3019PHC
Prime / 01-0010.420 2,600 USD Stainless steel, EP 420 (manual)

How much does a Zenith El Primero cost?

Zenith chronographs outfitted with an El Primero caliber are available starting at 2,500 USD on Chrono24. For this price, you can find well-maintained models from the 1990s and early 2000s. Prices for watches from current collections, such as the Chronomaster Open with a partially skeletonized dial, start closer to 7,000 USD. Expect to see prices around 8,200 USD for a Chronomaster Original with the classic tricolor dial. Set aside at least 2,000 USD more if you want to purchase a model with the state-of-the-art El Primero 21 caliber.

You'll find watches with a double tourbillon, Gravity Control, or fusee at the upper end of the price range. These watches demand between 60,500 USD and 105,000 USD.

Vintage refs like the A384 and A386 are particularly popular with collectors, and will set you back between 14,000 USD and 19,000 USD, depending on the exact model and condition. Watches powered by the El Primero but not made by Zenith are also coveted among collectors. Some popular examples include the Rolex Daytona ref. 16520 and TAG Heuer Carrera Calibre 36. The latter is available on Chrono24 starting around 4,600 USD, while the Rolex demands closer to 38,000 USD.


Vintage El Primeros

The first Zenith timepieces to feature the then-groundbreaking El Primero caliber were the references A384, A385, and A386. The A386 is considered by many to be the archetypal Zenith chronograph thanks to its iconic dial design with three subdials, each in a different color. The 30-minute counter at 3 o'clock is blue, the 12-hour counter at 6 is dark gray, and the small seconds at 9 has a light gray hue. A red chronograph hand adds the perfect amount of color to the dial, and the round, 38-mm stainless steel case gives the watch a classic overall look. Well-maintained examples of this watch can be purchased on Chrono24 starting at 19,000 USD.

The A384 and its sibling, the A385, look markedly different than the A386. Both have a tonneau-shaped case with accentuated edges. The dial of the A384 is a typical panda layout, i.e., white background with black subdials. The dial of the A385, on the other hand, features a radial color gradient ranging from light beige to brown with contrasting white subdials. An A384 in good condition costs around 14,500 USD. The A385 almost seems like a bargain in comparison at just under 8,800 USD.


Revival and Retro Models

For a number of years now, Zenith has offered a range of retro and revival models that hark back to the designs of the very first El Primero watches. For example, fans of the A386 should check out watches in the Chronomaster Original collection. The ref. 03.3200.3600 is a fan favorite because it shares so many characteristics with the original, including a 38-mm case and tricolor subdial design. Inside this case, however, you'll find the caliber EP 3600, a modernized version of the El Primero offering an updated 60-hour power reserve and a stop-seconds mechanism. It is easy to identify watches with this movement by the subdials at 3 and 6 o'clock, which are now 60-second and 60-minute counters, respectively. Moreover, a scale to measure tenths of seconds replaces the tachymeter scale on the rehaut.

A stainless steel Chronomaster Original costs around 8,300 USD on Chrono24. If you'd prefer a rose gold model, expect prices closer to 18,000 USD.

If you'd like a watch that comes as close to the first El Primero watches as possible, the Chronomaster Revival collection is worth a closer look. The Chronomaster Revival El Primero A384 ref. 03.A384.400/21, for instance, is a near replica of the 1969 model. Even the El Primero 400 caliber powering the modern watch closely resembles the original. You can buy this timepiece on a leather strap for around 6,400 USD. For around 500 USD more, you can get the same watch on a so-called ladder bracelet which, as its name suggests, features middle links arranged like a ladder.


El Primero 21 – Precise to 1/100th of a Second

In 2017, Zenith introduced the El Primero 21, a new family of calibers that once again expands the functionality of this iconic movement. To display the time, the calibers rely on a balance that beats at an impressive 36,000 vph. The chronograph, on the other hand, has its own oscillation/escapement system that runs at a frequency of 360,000 vph or 50 Hz. This enables the movement to measure 1/100th of a second – quite a remarkable feat for a mechanical caliber!

You can find movements from the El Primero 21 line in watches from the Defy 21 and Defy Extreme collections. These movements are oftentimes intricately skeletonized, allowing the wearer to admire the finely tuned mechanics in all their glory.

A Defy 21 with a skeletonized caliber and titanium case costs around 9,800 USD on Chrono24. Versions made of ceramic or carbon are slightly more expensive and cost between 12,000 USD and 14,500 USD. If you'd prefer a rose gold Defy 21, be sure to budget around 35,500 USD. The Defy Extreme is equipped with a more robust case and costs between 14,000 USD and 19,000 USD.


Zenith El Primero Plus Tourbillon

Some Zenith El Primero calibers also boast a tourbillon. One example is the caliber EP 4035, which powers the Chronomaster Tourbillon, Pilot Type 20 Tourbillon, and Defy Xtreme Tourbillon, among others. The common thread between all these watches is the minute-tourbillon prominently displayed at the 11 o'clock position. This feature displaced the small seconds dial, which is usually at 9 o'clock.

Depending on the model and case material, prices range from around 19,000 USD for a stainless steel Chronomaster Tourbillon to nearly 46,500 USD for a black-coated titanium Defy Xtreme. The latter is water-resistant to 1,000 m (100 bar, 3,280 ft).

Zenith also offers a tourbillon version of the state-of-the-art El Primero 21, the EP 9020. This movement boasts a separate tourbillon for the time display and the chronograph. The frequencies remain the same at 5 Hz and 50 Hz, respectively, meaning you can also use watches with this caliber to time to the nearest 1/100th of a second.

Zenith currently uses the El Primero 9020 in the Defy Double Tourbillon. This watch features a skeletonized dial and comes in platinum, carbon, or sapphire crystal. Prices range from 87,500 USD to 105,000 USD, depending on the case material.

Fusee Tourbillon – Constant-Force Mechanism

One particular highlight of this luxury manufacturer from Le Locle, Switzerland, is the El Primero 4805 Fusee Tourbillon caliber. Unlike other El Primero movements, those with a fusee do not have a chronograph function. However, this mechanism ensures a constant driving force from the mainspring via a fusee and chain, resulting in extreme precision. Of course, the tourbillon at 6 o'clock is not to be overlooked.

The EP 4805 was first presented in 2015 in celebration of the company's 150th anniversary. The movement was housed in the Chronomaster El Primero Tourbillon GFJ. The last three letters of the model name, GFJ, are the initials of the company's founder, Georges Favre-Jacot. The El Primero Tourbillon GFJ is available with a ceramic or 18-karat rose gold case. Plan on spending around 64,500 USD for an unworn example. More recent models with this type of movement like the Defy Fusee Tourbillon cost between 60,500 USD and 77,500 USD, depending on the version.

El Primero Zero G – Defies Gravity

Zenith further exhibits its watchmaking prowess with the Zero G versions of the El Primero. Movements like the EP 8812 feature Gravity Control, a gyroscopic regulating module for the oscillation/escapement system that continuously realigns itself regardless of the watch's position. This ensures the balance and escapement are always in the ideal position and, thus, minimizes the effects of gravity. As a result, movements with this module boast exceptional levels of accuracy.

Watches powered by an El Primero with Gravity Control include, among others, the Academy Christophe Colomb Equation of Time, which earned Zenith the "Complicated Watch Prize" at 2011's Grand Prix d’Horlogerie de Genève. This gold watch is available on Chrono24 starting around 69,000 USD.

A more recent model with this module is the Defy Zero G, which is available in titanium, carbon, or rose gold for between 72,500 USD and 93,000 USD.


Zenith's Speedy Sports Watches

Most of the chronographs powered by the Zenith El Primero have an elegant, sporty design. The watches make great everyday watches for the office and beyond. However, Zenith also has some El Primero timepieces that are true sports watches. The Stratos Flyback and Rainbow Flyback are two such models that are particularly beloved by fans. Both watches have a 45.5-mm case, rotating bezel, and are powered by the calibers EP 405 or EP 405B. Unlike the standard El Primero, the 405 features a flyback function, meaning you can reset the chronograph to zero and start it again with the single push of a button.

You will find well-maintained examples of the Stratos Flyback and Rainbow Flyback for around 5,700 USD on Chrono24. The special edition Stratos Flyback Striking 10th with the caliber EP 4057 costs around 1,400 USD more. The chronograph seconds hand on this watch only needs 10 seconds to make a complete rotation.

Chronomaster Sport

The Chronomaster Sport joined the Zenith portfolio at the start of 2021. This timepiece is aimed at fans of classic racing chronographs. Its fixed ceramic bezel with a tenths of seconds scale is particularly reminiscent of racing classics like the Rolex Daytona or TAG Heuer Carrera. However, the dial with its tricolor subdial design clearly makes this watch a Chronomaster.

The Chronomaster Sport is outfitted with the new El Primero 3600. This movement boasts a 60-hour power reserve and, to the delight of many fans, a stop-seconds mechanism.

The 41-mm watch is available with a stainless steel or 18-karat rose gold case. Be prepared to spend around 17,500 USD on a gold version. A stainless steel watch costs around 10,500 USD on a three-piece link bracelet and 9,500 USD on a rubber strap.


The El Primero With Three Hands

At the start of 2022, Zenith unveiled a whole new line of watches powered by the El Primero caliber. The design of the Defy Skyline is a nod to classic sports watches from the 1970s. The watches in this series feature an octagonal stainless steel case, integrated bracelet, and twelve-sided faceted bezel. The sunburst dial in black, blue, or silver has a perfectly aligned pattern of engraved four-pointed stars. Applied luminescent bar indices mark the hours.

The most notable thing about the Defy Skyline, however, is that it's a three-hand watch. The hours and minutes are displayed centrally, while a subdial at 9 o'clock is home to the running seconds. The watch's EP 3620 caliber is a true El Primero, meaning the second hand only needs 10 seconds to make a complete rotation.

The official list price for a Zenith Defy Skyline is 8,400 USD.


1969 – A Pivotal Year

In the mid-1960s, the watch world was embroiled in a race to release the world's first automatic chronograph caliber. Zenith, Seiko, and a collaboration between the brands Breitling, Heuer, Büren, and chronograph specialist Dubois Dépraz were in a neck-and-neck race.

Breitling, Heuer, and Büren presented the result of their collaboration in March 1969: the Calibre 11 with a chronograph module and micro-rotor. For technical reasons, the crown of this movement was placed on the left, while the two chronograph push-pieces were on the right.

Zenith had introduced their El Primero in January 1969, i.e., two months earlier. Unlike the Calibre 11, Zenith's El Primero was an integrated chronograph movement. That meant the movement was fully designed for the purpose of timing, and its components fit together perfectly. The Calibre 11, on the other hand, had a chronograph module that was mounted onto a base movement. Though introduced first, the Zenith El Primero wasn't available on the market until the autumn of 1969. The Japanese manufacturer Seiko sold the first wristwatches powered by an automatic chronograph movement in the early summer of 1969.